Four challenges restricting agricultural development reform focus on where to put?


Recently, held a meeting of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, analysis of economic work in 2017, which highlighted the "actively promote the agricultural supply side structural reforms". To promote agricultural supply side structural reform, improve the overall efficiency of agriculture and competitiveness, is the current and future a period of reform of agricultural policy in China and improve the main direction in the new situation. Next, how to adhere to the problem oriented, to further promote the agricultural supply side structural reforms, in order to highlight the contradictions and problems existing in the development of new ideas to solve the agricultural development, we need to think deeply.

Agricultural development faces four severe challenges

After 30 years of development, China's agriculture has made progress in all aspects of structure optimization and efficiency improvement. But we should also see the deep-seated contradictions and problems in the continuous accumulation. With the in-depth development of industrialization and urbanization, the whole society of ecological civilization consciousness, the domestic and foreign agricultural product market integration deepening, the mode of agricultural development in our country is not healthy, not sustainable, lack of competitiveness problems have become increasingly prominent.

One is the international competitiveness. Although the 2015 national grain output reached 6.2 tons, but the annual grain imports hit a record high, reaching 1.3 tons. The yield, imports, an important reason for the inventory of "three volume increase, the price of agricultural products is upside down, with the high cost of agricultural products. I agricultural product cost is high, the root cause is much less of the shortage of water resources. Along with the industrialization and urbanization level, labor and land costs of rapid growth, China's agriculture lack international competitiveness is becoming increasingly prominent.

The two is the decline in the ability of sustainable development. And the traditional industry is facing overcapacity, agriculture is facing more serious capacity overdraft. Now our country achieve agricultural capacity, a considerable part is obtained through an overdraft of resources and ecological environment. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, groundwater overdraft in long period, encroachment of wetlands from grain, pool fish production increased the yield, but the agricultural production capacity overdraft consequences in gradually, leading to agricultural sustainable development ability is declining.

Three is the decline in supply and demand matching ability. Under the market mechanism, supply and demand of agricultural products will be spontaneous docking, formation, a relatively stable relationship. Agricultural production is affected by factors such as the characteristics, problems of imbalance between supply and demand of agricultural products in China is more serious. On the one hand, the grain yield gap to rely on imports to make up, on the other hand, food waste. Behind the imbalance between supply and demand is the mismatch of resources, the need to pay close attention.

Four is the decline in income support ability. The growth of the four major source of income for farmers affected by the decline in the number of migrant workers: the weak and the level of wage growth, wage growth is not optimistic; affected by international agricultural commodities prices low, household business income is difficult to rapid growth; affected by the national fiscal revenue growth is slowing, farmers get through agriculture subsidies and social security transfer income growth will slow down; the release by the influence bonus reform takes time to rural collective property rights system, property income is difficult to become the driving force of income in most rural areas. The four increase of power attenuation, there have been signs of a period in the future, may even aggravate.

Agricultural development faces the above prominent contradictions and problems, only through deepening reform to resolve.

Four major points of promoting agricultural reform

Compared with the adjustment of agricultural structure, agricultural supply side structural reforms to pay more attention to solve the problem of system, fundamentally correct wrong configuration elements and the structure of supply and demand distortions, in order to highlight the contradictions and problems existing in the development of new ideas to solve the agricultural development.

One is the development of various forms of moderate scale management of agriculture. It is to deal with the urban and rural population structure change and agriculture and industrialization, farmers aging, the inevitable requirement of rural hollowing, but also improve the agricultural labor productivity, labor cost control of agricultural products is rising fast, enhance the fundamental way to China's agricultural base to speed up the rural competitiveness. The right to land contractual management right registration certification, to promote the "Three Rights Separation" reform, constructing the policy system of the development of new agricultural business entities.

The two is to replace green growth capacity marginal capacity exit. Agriculture is a special industry of natural reproduction and economic reproduction interweave, has very strong dependence on the natural ecological environment, but also have a significant impact on the natural ecological environment. In the past at the expense of the ecological environment for the cost of agricultural production, is a kind of unhealthy. Not sustainable capacity, must as soon as possible. To promote agriculture is on the path of green development, the development of resource saving and environmental friendly agriculture, is the main battlefield to promote green development of the whole society, which is also a important task of agricultural supply side structural reform. In this process, not only to promote scientific and technological innovation, to carry out large-scale high standards construction of farmland and water conservancy construction, vigorously promote the progress of agricultural science and technology, but also to promote institutional innovation, establish institutional mechanisms conducive to promoting the development of green agriculture, make agriculture as soon as possible" Green up.

Three is the extension and reconstruction of agricultural industry chain, value chain. In summary the experiences of Japan "six industries" and China's agricultural industrialization on the basis of the experience, is based on agriculture, to improve farmers' share ratio for the purpose of promoting the development of rural integration of the 123 industries. It is beneficial to the extension of agricultural industry chain, promote the agricultural products processing industry transformation and upgrading. In accordance with the help of farmers share the value-added income, perfecting the profit mechanism of agricultural industry chain and farmers.

The four is the release of the correct policy and market signals. In this process, it is necessary to play the market signal navigation lights, should also play a policy signal baton role. Steadily promote the agricultural price formation mechanism reform and storage system, in order to reduce the price distortions and correct the mismatch of resources as the direction, adhere to both the market the reform orientation and protect the interests of farmers, adhere to the "variety of measures to gradually push forward." to continue the implementation of rice and wheat minimum purchase price policy, but to enhance the policy flexibility, change not only rising down rigid expectations. Actively and steadily push forward the reform of corn storage system, establish a new model of market purchase subsidy ". Whether it is the direct subsidies to grain farmers, agricultural subsidies, agricultural subsidies with the support and protection of agriculture subsidies, or the establishment of agricultural credit guarantee system, or the development of rural financial inclusion To improve the agricultural insurance system, etc., should be reflected to the focus to improve the agricultural quality benefit and competitiveness, tilted to the new business entities, to force the policy of resource conservation and environmental friendly production mode, leading the transformation of agricultural development mode in agricultural policy transformation.

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